The Patent Act’s omission to define inventorship leaves a paramount concept in a legal vacuum. Where courts have stepped in to fill the void, they have largely deferred to the inventor, and joint inventor, status articulated in the patent claims. This fixation fails to accurately reflect the contributions of those who, by common understanding, are inventors. In doing so, the patent system incentivizes not invention, as the Constitution and Congress conceived, but legal claims of invention, playing to the advantage of the legally sophisticated rather than the scientifically innovative. In this article Professor Fellmeth explores this fundamental disconnect, and proposes several legal solutions.